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2020 《医博英语》 每日一练(01月12日)

1.【单选题】Even if it is a cold day, I think cool water looks _______.

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2.【单选题】The police could not find a motive for the murder.

A: target

 

B: reason

 

C: discussion

 

D: remark


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3.【单选题】He left immediately on the pretext that hah ad to catch a train

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        As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a “common law”, or law made by courts __1__a monarch or other central governmental __2__ like a legislature. The jury, a __3 __of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an __4 __part of our common-law system.

        Use of juries to decide cases is a __5 __feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States. __6 __the centuries, many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result __7__ would be obtained using a judge __8__ , as many countries do. __9 __a jury decides cases after “ __10__ ”, or discussions among a group of people, the jury’s decision is likely to have the __11 __from many different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right.

        Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide __12 __among __13 __citizens, and criminal cases, which decide cases brought by the government __14 __that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and __15 __. Jurors, consisting of __16__ numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.

        The judge __17 __to the case __18__ the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states, __19__ jurors are questioned by the judge; in others, they are questioned by the lawyers representing the __20__ under rules dictated by state law.


4.【单选题】[A]Although [B]Because [C]If [D]While

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Part llI Cloze (10%)

  Directions: in this section there is a passage with ten numbered blanks. For each blank, there are four choices marked a, b, c, and d list on the right side. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the answer sheet.

  Robert Spring, a 19th century forger, was so good at his profession that he was able to make his living for 15 years by selling false signatures of famous Americans. Spring was born in England in 1813 and ___1_____ in Philadelphia in 1858 to open a bookstore. At first he prospered by selling his small but ______2____ collection of early U.S. autographs. Discovering his ability at copying hand-writing, he began ____3____ signatures of George Washington and Ben Franklin and writing them on the title pages of old books. To lesson the chance of detection, he sent his forgeries to England and Canada for sale and___4____.

  Forgers have a hard time selling their produces. A forger can't approach a ___ 5 ____buyer must deal with people who don't have much knowledge in the field. Forgers have many ways to make their work look real. For example, they buy old books to use the_____6___paper of the title page, and they can treat paper and ink with chemicals.

  In Spring's time,___7______ after the Civil War, Britain was still fond of the Southern state, so Spring ____ 8_____ a respectable maiden lady known as Miss Fanny Jackson, the only daughter of General" Stonewall" Jackson. For several years Miss Fanny's ____9 ____ problems forced her to sell a great number of letters and manuscripts belonging to her famous father. Spring had to work very hard to satisfy the demand. All this activity did not prevent Spring from dying in poverty, leaving sharp-eyed experts the difficult task of separating his forgeries from the__10_____.


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Section Ⅰ Use of English

 

Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

 

 

   As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a “common law”, or law made by courts 1 a monarch or other central governmental 2 like a legislature. The jury, a 3 of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an 4 part of our common-law system.

 

 

    Use of juries to decide cases is a 5 feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States. 6 the centuries, many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result 7 would be obtained using a judge 8 , as many countries do. 9 a jury decides cases after “ 10 ”, or discussions among a group of people, the jury’s decision is likely to have the 11 from many different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right.

 

 

    Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide 12 among 13 citizens, and criminal cases, which decide cases brought by the government 14 that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and 15 . Jurors, consisting of 16 numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.

 

 

    The judge 17 to the case 18 the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states, 19 jurors are questioned by the judge; in others, they are questioned by the lawyers representing the 20 under rules dictated by state law.


6.【单选题】[A]set [B]exact [C]given [D]placed

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  Children should avoid using mobile phones for all but essential calls because of possible health effects on young brains. This is one of the expected conclusions of an official government report to be published this week. The report is expected to call for the mobile phone industry to refrain from promoting phone use by children, and start labeling phones with data on the amount of radiation they emit

  The independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones, chaired by former government chief scientist William Stewart, has spent eight months reviewing existing scientific evidence on all aspects of the health effects of using mobile phones. Its report is believed to conclude that because we don't fully understand the nonthermal effects of radiation on human tissue, the government should adopt a precautionary approach, particularly in relation to children.

  There is currently no evidence that mobile phones harm users or people living near transmitter masts. But some studies show that cell-phones operating at radiation levels within current safety limits do have sort of biological effect on the brain John Tattersall, a researcher on the health effects of radiation at the Defense Evaluation and

  Research Agency's site at Portan Down, agrees that it might be wise to limit phone use by children. "If you have a developing nervous system, it's known to be more susceptible to environmental insults," he says. "So if phones did prove to be hazardous -- which they haven't yet -- it would be sensible."

  In 1998, Tattersall showed that radiation levels similar to those emitted by mobile phones could alter signals from brain cells in slices of rat brain. "What we've found is an effect, but we don't know if it's hazardous," he says.Alan Preece of the University of Bristol, who found last year that microwaves increase reaction times in test subjects, agreed that children's exposure would be greater. "There's a lot less tissue in the way, and the skull is thinner, so children's heads are considerably closer," he says.

  Stewart's report is likely to recommend that the current British safety standards on energy emissions from cell-phones should be cut to the level recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, which is one-fifth of the current British limit. "The extra safety factor of five is somewhat arbitrary," says Michael Clark of the National Radiological Protection Board. "But we accept that it's difficult for the UK to have different standards from an international body."


7.【单选题】Tattersall argues that it is wise to refrain mobile phone use by children in term of

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   That shabby unknown bundle of neglect and despair that was dropped off by the police six weeks ago -- later to be identified by his mother, who turns up occasionally -- is now a driving force on the infants' ward. Once he was bathed a few times and his rashes were treated, he mined out to be a 14-month-old boy named Vergil, still recovering from premature birth J birth weight, 21/2 pounds. It came obvious he had never received any real attention, and practically no solid food, and it was never very clear who assumed responsibility for him in his family, if anyone. Miraculously he survived, with almost no outside help.

  At first he just lay there, withdrawn, sucking on an empty bottle as he had been used to doing at home. After a few days it became clear he was ravenously hungry and he downed bottle after bottle of milk. Slowly he began to respond to the ward staff around him who hung over the side of his crib, tempting him back to life.

  He started by cautiously "chewing" on people, shitting and tasting them warily like a little wild creature. Gradually he climbed to a standing position, pulling himself up on the bars of his crib. Then he began to discover noise J that came from himself. When he learned that it was acceptable, in this place, to scream when engaged, he filled his comer of the room with garbled speech-like sounds, and loud baby-bellows of demand. If nobody responded he would fix each passerby with a coy look that evolved into a seductive grin, revealing four widely spaced little teeth. Someone always stopped, grinning back at this adorable creature, then picking him up and cuddling him. We on the staff took personal pride and delight in his steady progress.

  During the day we moved his crib from infants' ward to the playroom where there are people coming and going. He loved it, standing and cruising in his crib, commenting happily on the scene, crowing and babbling. One afternoon, when his crib was moved adjacent to the wall, he became unusually quiet, deep in concentration. With the stealth of a cat, using his little fingers like tiny screwdrivers, he had taken apart the wall oxygen unit. Our delight in his progress turned out to real respect. Perhaps we could steer him toward the right path before it was too late.Vergil definitely had a future.


8.【单选题】In the infants' ward, Vergil ________

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阅读理解

  Cells cannot remain alive outside certain limits of temperature, and much narrower limits mark the boundaries of effective functioning. Enzyme (酶) systems of mammals and birds are most efficient only within a narrow range around 37C; a departure of a few degrees from this value seriously impairs their functioning. Even though cells can survive wider fluctuations, the integrated actions of bodily systems are impaired. Other animals have a wider tolerance for changes of bodily temperature.

  For centuries it has been recognized that mammals and birds differ from other animals in the way they regulate body temperatures. Ways of characterizing the difference have become more accurate and meaningful over time, but popular terminology still reflects the old division into “warm-blooded’ and “cold-blooded” species; warm-blooded included mammals and birds, whereas all other creatures were considered cold-blooded. As more species were studied, it became evident that this classification was inadequate. A fence lizard or a desert iguana (鬣蜥)—each cold-blooded—usually has a body temperature only a degree or two below that of humans and so is not cold. Therefore the next distinction was made between animals that maintain a constant body temperature, called homotherms(同温动物), and those whose body temperature varies with their environment, called poikilotherms(变温动物). But this classification also proved inadequate, because among mammals there are many that vary their body temperatures during hibernation. Furthermore, many invertebrates(无脊椎动物) that live in the depths of the ocean never experience a change in the chill of the deep water, and their body temperatures remain constant.

  The current distinction is between animals whose body temperature is regulated chiefly by internal metabolic processes and those whose temperature is regulated by, and who get most of their heat from, the environment. The former are called endotherms (恒温动物), and the latter are called ectotherms (外温动物). Most ectotherms do regulate their body temperature, and they do so mainly by locomoting to favorable sites or by changing their exposure to external sources of heat. Endotherms (mainly mammals and birds) also regulate their temperature by choosing favorable environments, but primarily they regulate their temperatures by making a variety of internal adjustments.


9.【单选题】Which of the following terms refers primarily to mammals birds?

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Experts say about 1% of young women in the United States are almost starving themselves today. They are suffering from a sickness called anorexia.
These young women have an abnormal fear of getting fat. They 51 starve themselves so they weigh at least 15% less than their normal weight.
The National Institute of Mental Health says one 52 ten cases of anorexia leads to serious medical problems. These patients can die from heart failure or {he disease can lead young women to 53 themselves. For example, former gymnast Christy Henrich died at age 22. She weighed only 6l pounds.
A person with anorexia first develop joint and muscle problems. There is a lack of iron in theblood. 54 the sickness progresses, a young woman's breathing, heartbeat,, and. blood pressure rates slow down. The important substance calcium is 55 from the bones, sometimes causing bones to break. Sometimes the brain gets smaller, causing changes in 56 a person thinks and acts. Scientists say many patients have further mental and emotional problems. They have 57 opinions about themselves. They feel helpless. Their attempts to become extremely thin may 58 efforts to take control of their lives. They may suffer from fearfulness or continued deep sadness. Called depression. They may become dependent on illegal drugs. Some people also feel the need to continually repeat a(n) 59 . For example, they may repeatedly wash their hands although their hands are clean.
Anorexia is a serious eating 60 . lf it is not treated on time, it can be fatal.
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